Middle East Prior to World War I

Map of the Middle East

Impact  of World War I upon the Middle East

 Between 1914 and 1918,  World War I profoundly affected political, diplomatic, military, economic and social matters in Iran, Egypt, and the central lands of the Ottoman Empire. For the Ottomans the war had especially important effects, since much of the fighting took place on Ottoman soil. Military casualties were enormous, and millions of civilians were also killed in massacres or by starvation and disease. When the combat stopped in 1918, the ordeal of the Middle East continued, as the victors sought to allocate among themselves the people and lands of occupied countries and regions. A shot fired by a Serbian nationalist killed the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on June 28, 1914, and the repercussions ricocheted around the world. It proved fatal as well to the Ottoman Empire, while greatly influencing Iran and Egypt. Austria- Hungary and Germany formed the Central Powers, and opposed to them were Serbia, Russia, France, and Great Britain- the Entente group. many other countries were at least initially neutral including Italy, Bulgaria, the United States, the Ottoman Empire, and Iran.